In-Text Citations

Two primary rules:

  • Don’t over-attribute in-text information.
  • Don’t under-attribute.

If there is a source for every other sentence, take a step back and evaluate which are necessary.

If there is little to no in-text citation, review the sources and give credit where credit is due.


  • Quoted or paraphrased source material.
  • Proprietary information (information distinct to a particular source), including reports, studies, professional journals and other sources that support contentions in your articles.
  • Statistical evidence.

Do Not Cite:

  • Common knowledge or obvious information.
  • Information distributed widely across a range of media.
  • Information commonly found in many dictionaries or encyclopedias.


  • For studies, include the publication year and identify who conducted the study.
  • Provide brief, complete attribution for people you quote:
    • Source Name
    • Authoritative identification (job title, credentials, etc.)
  • Avoid vague citations, such as “Experts agree…” and “Studies show…” Identify which experts, which studies.
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